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How to Disassemble and Clean a Ruger 10/22

In this article, you will learn how to disassemble and clean a Ruger 10/22 firearm. We will provide you with step-by-step instructions and a helpful video to guide you through the process. Additionally, we will provide some historical context about the Ruger 10/22 to give you a deeper understanding of this popular firearm. By the end of this article, you will have the knowledge and confidence to properly maintain your Ruger 10/22. How to Disassemble and Clean a Ruger 10/22

How to Disassemble and Clean a Ruger 10/22

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The Ruger 10/22 is a popular semi-automatic .22 caliber rifle known for its reliability and versatility. Whether you use it for hunting, target shooting, or plinking, regular cleaning and maintenance are essential for ensuring the rifle’s longevity and optimal performance. In this article, we will guide you through the step-by-step process of disassembling and cleaning your Ruger 10/22, along with some important safety precautions and maintenance tips.

Tools and Safety Precautions

Before you begin disassembling your Ruger 10/22, gather the necessary tools: a screwdriver, a cleaning rod, bore brush, cleaning patches, a nylon brush, a cleaning solvent, and lubricating oil. It is also recommended to have a cleaning mat or a dedicated workspace to keep your parts organized and prevent any damage.

Safety should always be a top priority when handling firearms. Before you start disassembling your Ruger 10/22, ensure that the firearm is unloaded. Remove the magazine and visually inspect the chamber to make sure there is no ammunition present. Follow all firearm safety rules and handle the firearm with caution throughout the disassembly and cleaning process.

Disassembly Process

Step 1: Unloading the firearm

Always start by unloading your Ruger 10/22 to ensure it is safe before beginning any disassembly. Remove the magazine and check the chamber for any remaining ammunition.

Step 2: Removing the barrel

To remove the barrel, first, unscrew the barrel band screw located on the underside of the stock near the front. Once the screw is loosened, gently lift the barrel and slide it out of the stock.

Step 3: Removing the stock

To remove the stock, locate the takedown screw located at the rear of the receiver. Unscrew the takedown screw and set it aside. Gently lift the stock, ensuring it clears the trigger housing, and slide it off the receiver.

Step 4: Extractor and bolt removal

To remove the extractor and bolt, push the receiver release latch located on the left-hand side of the receiver, just behind the ejection port. This will allow you to pull the bolt and bolt handle assembly out of the receiver.

Step 5: Trigger group disassembly

To disassemble the trigger group, first, remove the trigger group pin located at the rear of the trigger housing. Once the pin is removed, you can separate the trigger housing from the receiver. Take note of the springs and small parts and ensure they are secure during the disassembly process.

Cleaning Procedures

Now that you have successfully disassembled your Ruger 10/22, let’s move on to the cleaning procedures.

Step 1: Cleaning the barrel

Attach a bore brush to your cleaning rod and apply some solvent to the brush. Insert the cleaning rod into the barrel from the chamber end and scrub the bore in a back and forth motion. After a few passes, remove the bore brush and attach a cleaning patch to the cleaning rod. Run the cleaning patch through the barrel to remove any loosened fouling or debris. Repeat this process until the cleaning patch comes out clean.

Step 2: Cleaning the stock

To clean the stock, use a nylon brush to remove any dirt or debris that may have accumulated. For stubborn stains, you can use a mild detergent or stock cleaner. Once clean, wipe down the stock with a soft cloth to remove any residue.

Step 3: Cleaning the bolt and extractor

Use a nylon brush and cleaning solvent to scrub the bolt and extractor. Pay close attention to the extractor claw and ensure it is free from any buildup. Wipe down the bolt and extractor with a clean cloth.

Step 4: Cleaning the trigger group

For the trigger group, use a nylon brush and cleaning solvent to remove any dirt, debris, or fouling. Pay close attention to the sear and other small parts. Wipe down the trigger group with a clean cloth.

How to Disassemble and Clean a Ruger 10/22

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Reassembly Process

Now that your Ruger 10/22 parts are clean, it’s time to reassemble the firearm.

Step 1: Reassembling the trigger group

Carefully align the trigger group with the receiver and insert the trigger group pin. Ensure that the trigger group pin is fully inserted and flush with the receiver.

Step 2: Installing the bolt and extractor

Insert the bolt assembly into the receiver, making sure the extractor aligns with the corresponding groove on the receiver. Push the bolt assembly all the way back, and the bolt should engage the bolt stop.

Step 3: Reattaching the stock

Slide the stock onto the receiver, ensuring it slides all the way in and aligns with the receiver’s takedown screw hole. Screw the takedown screw back into place and tighten securely.

Step 4: Attaching the barrel

Insert the barrel into the stock and align the barrel band screw hole with the corresponding hole on the stock. Screw the barrel band screw back into place and tighten securely.

Final Checks and Test

Before you consider your Ruger 10/22 fully reassembled, it is crucial to perform some final checks and a function test.

Step 1: Checking for any missed dirt or debris

Inspect all the parts and crevices to ensure there is no remaining dirt, debris, or fouling. Use a flashlight if necessary to have a clear view of all areas.

Step 2: Conducting a function test

With the rifle unloaded, perform a function test by working the bolt and trigger to ensure proper operation. Check for smooth and reliable cycling and trigger function.

Step 3: Final inspection

Give your Ruger 10/22 a final visual inspection to ensure all components are properly aligned and secured. Look for any loose screws or parts that may require further attention.

How to Disassemble and Clean a Ruger 10/22

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Maintenance and Storage

Regular maintenance is crucial for the optimal performance and longevity of your Ruger 10/22. After each use, make it a habit to clean your firearm to prevent dirt, debris, and fouling from accumulating. Additionally, always follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for lubrication to keep your rifle operating smoothly.

When it comes to storage, ensure that your Ruger 10/22 is stored in a dry and secure place away from children and unauthorized individuals. Consider using a gun safe or lockable firearm cabinet to prevent any accidents or unauthorized access.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can a Ruger 10/22 be fully disassembled?

Yes, a Ruger 10/22 can be fully disassembled for thorough cleaning and maintenance. However, it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and take note of small parts and their proper reassembly during the disassembly process.

How often should I clean my Ruger 10/22?

The frequency of cleaning your Ruger 10/22 depends on how often it is used. As a general guideline, it is recommended to clean your firearm after every use or at least every 300-500 rounds to maintain optimal performance.

Can I use WD-40 for cleaning?

While WD-40 can be used as a penetrating oil and rust preventative, it is not recommended for cleaning firearms. Instead, use a dedicated firearm cleaning solvent or oil specifically designed for firearms.

How to Disassemble and Clean a Ruger 10/22

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Tips and Tricks

Here are a few tips and tricks to make your Ruger 10/22 cleaning and maintenance process more efficient:

  • Use a cleaning mat or dedicated workspace to prevent small parts from getting lost and to keep your working area organized.
  • When disassembling your Ruger 10/22, keep track of small parts by placing them in a tray or using magnetic parts trays.
  • Compressed air can be useful for blowing out debris from hard-to-reach areas, such as the trigger assembly or magazine well.


Proper cleaning and maintenance are essential for keeping your Ruger 10/22 in top condition and ensuring its reliability. By following the step-by-step guide outlined in this article, you can confidently disassemble, clean, and reassemble your Ruger 10/22. Remember to always prioritize safety and handle your firearm responsibly. Enjoy the benefits of a clean and reliable Ruger 10/22 for years to come.

How to Disassemble and Clean a Ruger 10/22

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